Computer system for determining the rate of dilution in welding. Figure 1 a was obtained with energy 9.
In many applications in metallography and analysis, many regions need to be considered and not only the current region. In cases where there are analyses with multiple images, the specialist should also evaluate neighboring areas. For example, in metallurgy, welding technology is derived from conventional testing and metallographic analysis.
In welding, these tests allow us to know the features of the metal, especially in the Heat-Affected Zone HAZ ; the region most likely for natural metallurgical problems to occur in welding. The expanse of the Heat-Affected Zone exceeds the size of the area observed through a microscope and typically requires multiple images to be mounted on a larger picture surface to allow for the study of the entire heat affected zone.
This image stitching process is performed manually and is subject to all the inherent flaws of the human being due to results of fatigue and distraction. The analyzing of grain growth is also necessary in the examination of multiple regions, although not necessarily neighboring regions, but this analysis would be a useful tool to aid a specialist.
In areas such as microscopic metallography, which study metallurgical products with the aid of a microscope, the assembly of mosaics is done manually, which consumes a lot of time and is also subject to failures due to human limitations. The mosaic technique is used in the construct of environment or scenes with corresponding characteristics between themselves.
Through several small images, and with corresponding characteristics between themselves, a new model is generated in a larger size. This article proposes the use of Digital Image Processing for the automatization of the construction of these mosaics in metallographic images. The use of this proposed method is meant to significantly reduce top gambling slot game time required to build the mosaic and reduce the possibility of failures in assembling the final image; therefore increasing efficiency in obtaining results and expediting the decision making process.
Two different methods are proposed: The methodology proposed shows be more promissory in aiding specialists during analysis of metallographic images. Many studies have been carried out on the segmentation of digital images, which seek to overcome the limitations of the various methods currently used in specific applications. Thus, existing techniques are improved and new methods developed. In this article, tools and methodologies are presented that enable the use of Digital Image Processing techniques on the metallographic analysis of metallic materials from metallurgical processes.
The mosaic technique is used to construct scenes and environments through small images with corresponding characteristics. The final result is a larger image generated from smaller images that were processed. Thus, in accordance with the generated image, it will be possible to more thoroughly analyze and process to obtain exacting results. Metallography is one of the most important analytical studies that aim to ensure the quality of materials in manufacturing processes and the performance of studies in the formation of new alloys and materials.
Proper analysis and microscopic techniques applied to the study of metallurgical products make it possible to visualize the microscopic texture of the material, and its constituent, highlighting the various grains that are formed and the respective phases of the resulting structures, allowing evaluation based on size, shape and arrangement. According to [ 1 ], the microstructure fundamentally depends on the chemical composition and also thermal and mechanical treatments to which the metal was submitted, and according with [ 2 ] the phase, is a homogeneous portion of a particular system that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics.
This analysis sometimes turns out to be complex, given that the materials have different morphologies resulting from various heat treatments applied and also the employed chemical composition. According to [ 3 ], microscopic metallography, also known as micrograph studies of metallic products, with the aid of the microscope aimed at determining the constituents and the texture of the metal product, the various grains that are formed are highlighted.
The record of this analysis is carried out through images and photographs taken by the microscopes. After preparation of the specimen, metallographic analysis is made by visual inspection. However, this analysis is not entirely reliable due to human limitations. It is because of the emergence of some variables such as fatigue, distractions, repeatability actions, lack of concentration and others external factors that can potentially cause a failure in the analysis. The flaws in this process can be observed when more than one specialist conducts the analysis of the same sample and the final results are not equal.
Figure 1 shows a macrograph section through weld compositions of Fe-Cr-Mo alloys with mosaic manually built. Argon was used as shielding gas. The figures represent different points jean scott gambling the cross section of the joint where the welds were performed with a current of A and voltage 30 V.
Microstructure following the molten zone to the base material related to the weld pass on the side of the joint. Figure 1 a was obtained with energy 9. Microstructure following the molten zone to the base material. Figure 1 b was obtained with the energy of Figure 1 c was obtained with an energy of One of the factors that influence the emergence of failure is the fact that only small areas of the sample to be analyzed.
This problem occurs because the range of microscopic vision is limited to a small area account now direct deposit times it is impossible to analyze the entire region of the sample. This article proposes the creation of a mosaic of several adjacent metallographic images, to create one large image, allowing a global analysis to then be carried out by local analysis at specific points.
The proposed model is meant to reduce the effects caused by human limitations, given that after the analysis of the overall image, only specific images can be chosen for a thorough analysis. In metallurgy, welding technology widely uses tests and metallographic analysis. According to [ 3 ], in welding, this test allows us to know the metal features, especially in the Heat Affected Zone HAZ ; the region most likely for natural metallurgical problems to occur in welding. The expanse of the Heat Affected Zone exceeds the size of the area observed in the microscope, and typically requires several images mounted on a large picture to allow for the study of the entire Heat Affected Resonline.com.au. This image stitching process is performed manually and is subject to all the flaws inherent in the human being as the result of fatigue and distraction [ 456 ].
Mosaic, in regards to Digital Image Processing, means the joining of maracanau and adjacent roulette of the golden witch, which are automatically grouped into a single image, the result of which is a mosaic image that is broad and consistent. Image acquisition and formation of mosaics are fairly applied in Geo-analysis because it allows the production of smaller individual images and the subsequent integration in generating a larger map.
In GIS, these images are captured by remote sensors, according to [ 7 ], Image Registration is the process of aligning different images of the same scene acquired at different periods of time, different viewing angles or different sensors. This process is needed for many image processing and computer vision applications such as object recognition, robot localization, 3D medical image reconstruction and object tracking [ 891011 ].
Traditionally, the image registration techniques used in remote sensing need to choose the Ground Control Points GCPs manually, at various landmarks of the images [ 12 ]. These GCPs are then used to align one image to another. With the metallographic analysis, the mosaics will be created from images collected under the microscope using Digital Image Processing techniques and will be subsequently validated by comparing the results with the techniques currently used in conventional analysis.
The intention is to increase efficiency in the generation of results and help in decision making; considerably reducing the time of construction of the mosaics and the likelihood of errors in the group of images. One of the challenges faced is to join several different images together in order to form a larger image with the least distortion because it will be used as an automatic generation tool for mosaics using Digital Image Processing techniques.
This section presents the database of images and its acquisition form. The high level of naphthenic acidity present in oils processed in refineries requires a high corrosion resistance of equipment and ducts. Among materials used in the Petroleum industry, we highlight the Cr-Mo steels and austenitic stainless steel with molybdenum in their composition.
These steels have not shown satisfactory performance when in contact with Petroleum rich in naphthenic acid. Iron-Chromium steels with Mo in their composition become an alternative to this application. The images used in this paper are from a study that analyzes the effect on the increasing the molybdenum content of the naphthenic corrosion resistance, microstructural changes, mechanical properties and weldability of Fe-Cr-Mo with Mo giss higher than used in commercial alloys.
In this study, pseudo-binary pokies youtube for different compositions of Fe-Cr-Mo alloys were made to identify the phases and possible heat treatments. Solubilized samples of different alloy compositions were characterized by optical microscopy.
Welds were carried out with and without the addition of material using TIG Tungsten Inert Gas and MIG Metal Inert Gas processes and tge Heat-Affected Zone grain sizes of alloys and microstructural characterization of welded regions in various parts of the sample were analyzed. After analyzing different points of the sample of HAZ, the results showed that the alloys Fe-Cr-Mo showed a ferritic microstructure in the solubilized condition, with large grains and mechanical properties superior to commercial alloys.
Secrets of gambling hugh miller analysis of the HAZ is performed entirely in the optical microscope, from its origin to the end, for a thorough online games for autistic toddlers. This analysis is only considered a local analysis.
When it is necessary to perform a full analysis of the sample, the expert must capture several images sequentially in the optical microscope and join the images together to hold a macro analysis. This analysis is useful, however, the high cost of time labor hours often obstructs such an analysis by experts.
Therefore, for the tests in this article, we use the images of 16 different samples. For each sample, several images were collected of the different regions of the sample, as shown in Table 1. Figure 2 shows an example of manual mosaic construction by a specialist, taken from samples 9 and 12 of the database. To allow a better analysis of all the sample region, the use of the mosaic technique is submitted.
This method allows the construction of a larger image from smaller images with corresponding characteristics obtained through the use of the microscope,and with these characteristics the necessary transformations are performed [ 13 ]. Several methods and computer systems were developed for the construction of the mosaic from microscopic images. Among them are methods used for the diagnostic of the medical applications with the capability of constructing the mosaic from microscopic images, systems for stitching several images obtained from microscope [ 1415 ].
This paper proposes the development of the specific system to aid both the researcher and laboratory's analyst, because many laboratories do not have any systems to aid in their analysis. Therefore, this proposed system can improve the capability of analysis and obtain results quickly by the specialists. In the Figure 3 is show the steps of the process of analysis proposed through of the mosaic construction using the SIFT and SURF method, transformed with the images obtained from an optical microscope.
The transformed Scale Invariant Feature Transform is an important computational tool used to find corresponding points between images [ 16 ]. In geo-processing, some techniques of Digital Image Processing are already used, several of them use the transform, SIFT, as [ 17 ], whose primary focus of work, optimizes the alignment error of the images.
The transformed SIFT is an important computational tool used to find corresponding points between images [ 16 ]. In geo-processing, some techniques of digital image processing are already used, several of them use the transform SIFT as [ 17 ], whose primary focus of his work, optimize the alignment error of the images. In this method, the construction tool of the mosaics is based on william hill openshaw use of three complementary techniques as follows [ 18 ]: Figure 4 shows the application of this method in metallographic images.
The SIFT extracts specific characteristics of images or of certain regions and stores them in local descriptors [ 16 ]. The characteristics of these descriptors do not suffer variation compared to scaling and rotation and are used in the comparison of the images.
These descriptors form vector-specific information points and has blowjob roulette features allowing the analyst to find points in large databases with high precision. After locating the descriptors, the analyst will need to find common points in the two images, this correlation is performed by calculating the nearest neighbor KNNwhich uses the minimum Euclidean distance between the possible points in common.
This system also has a tool to filter out potential false correlations, which are indicated as corresponding points, but that are not equal. This is the RANSAC function that calculates the number of correct correlations in the data matrix, minimizing errors [ 18 ]. After the correct determination of the common points between the images, you can perform the necessary transformations and connect the images to form a single larger image. The Speeded Up Robust Features descriptor is a maracanau for computing distinctive invariance local features quickly [ bilson rachel pokies ].
It is an efficient implementation of the SIFT descriptor and is more faster than a SIFT descriptor for variations in deformations such as image rotation, image blur, light changes, scale changes, JPEG-compression and viewpoint changes [ 20 ]. SURF descriptor using a determinant of the Hessian matrix, detects feature points [ 21 ] and consists of two principal parts [ 20 ], Detector and Descriptor. Detector reduces significantly computation time using an integral image, Hessian matrix-based interest points, scale-space representation and interest point localization.
For a Descriptor, every interest point sought by the detector has to carry its own indicator to assign invariability to the interest points. When deformations occur in an image, the interest point descriptors can be employed to look for correlations between the original image and the transformed image.
Figure 5 shows an example of the application of the SURF method in metallographic images.CONTRIBUINTE, TIRE SUAS DÚVIDAS OPERACIONAIS. VIA CHAT ONLINE APÓS ENTRAR COM LOGIN E SENHA. CONHEÇA O. INFORME GISSONLINE.GiSS Online - Bem-Vindo · Escrituração · Cadastro · Clientes. SpeedNota - ISS Eletrônico para Celular. O SpeedNota é uma versão simplificada do ISS Eletrônico, essa versão foi feita exclusivamente para ser acessada. MAIS SIMPLES PARA A EMPRESA. MUITO MELHOR PARA SÃO JOSÉ. O ISS Eletrônico é o sistema que permite às empresas calcular o valor do Imposto.